Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
1. Fresh Feed
Problem: Maximize yield when injecting feed oil
Best practice: The droplet size and spray distribution provided by the feed nozzles are critical to cracking efficiency and increasing yield. Leading providers of FCCU riser technology supply proprietary feed injection systems with nozzles designed specifically for superior feedstock injection and extended wear life.
2. Bio-Oil Injection
Problem: Inconsistent performance and reduced yield due to nozzle wear
Best practice: Injectors with specially designed nozzles to reduce wear provide long service life and maximize yield. Injector design should prevent polymerization of the feed and be flexible enough to adjust feed rates.
3. Torch Oil
Problem: Inefficient and incomplete torch oil combustion can cause safety issues such as CO2 build-up and mechanical issues in the regenerator during start-up or feed outage conditions.
Best practice: Achieve complete vaporization by using injectors that provide uniform distribution and consistent spray coverage. OptiMax™ injectors, specially designed to thoroughly mix the oil and steam and produce a uniformly sized small drops, are ideal. Using patented technology, the injectors optimize the effectiveness of the spray to ensure complete combustion.
4. Main Fractionator Water Wash
Problem: Corrosion and salt in the overhead line and downstream equipment
Best practice: Continuous wash water injection to prevent or remove corrosive build-up. Use of computational modeling to determine the optimal injection points, dispersion and coverage to prevent formation and salt removal. Injectors with WhirlJet® hollow cone and FullJet® full cone spray nozzles that produce small- to medium-size drops and uniform spray patterns are widely used.
5. Emergency Quench
Problem: Quick and efficient cooling during upset conditions
Best practice: Achieve quick cooling of gas without wetting, which can damage the refractory-lined duct. FloMax® S injectors use steam to atomize the water into small drops for quick cooling and evaporation. The injectors are specially-designed for use with steam.
6. Slurry Recycle
Problem: Premature injector wear and process disruption caused by slurry abrasiveness
Best practice: Use of high-flow steam injectors, such as OptiMax injectors, that are designed for durability and are available in special alloys enable efficient, continuous recycling.
7. Regenerator Shell Cooling
Problem: Eliminate hot spots on metal refractory shell to mitigate damage
Best practice: Strategically place steam nozzles that provide rapid cooling of hot spots with complete evaporation. FloMax® S nozzles feature tight drop size control and offers unsurpassed cooling efficiency.